This weblog is a rudimentary discourse analysis including textual and contextual analyses of the term ‘a▫oḏẖū’ (Gurmukhi: ਅਉਧੂ ; Hindustani: अउधू ) and ‘a▫uḏẖūṯ’ (Gurmukhi: ਅਉਧੂਤ ; Hindustani: अउधूता ) within the principal Sikha Dharma sacred scripture the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji to my knowledge first rendered in Gurmukhi, which I understand as both a script and a dialect. The terms collectively are evident in 31 verses. This weblog is a living document and will be subject to change without notification of version nor preservation and identification of documented quality control. These Gurmukhi and Hindustani terms are direct analogues for the Sanskrit ‘avadhuta‘ (IAST: avadhūta; Devanagari: अवधूत). Each verse will be discussed in immediate SGGS context as well as wider SGGS context as appropriate.
Note about author
Beauford Anton Stenberg is my birthname and to my knowledge I am the first Avadhuta of quality (as different to avadhuta in name and title) within the Dharmic Traditions to have not set foot upon the sacred ground of Mother India. This is a providential boon to the dharmic diaspora and is a curiosity in and of itself. That said, as per the Padma Purana, I annoint with the sacred soil of Sri Tulsi Devi and in particular an installed and deified Tulsi plant located at the left-hand lotus-feet of Sri Sri Radha-Ballaba. Tradition holds that all tirthas and places of pilgrimage are thereby attended. Avadhuta generally do not write nor publish directly and I will one day write and discourse as to why. I am breaking with this aspect of the tradition as conventional scholars ungrounded with the Holy Name and the living tradition, will be unable to do justice to the law and lore of the Dharmic Traditions and the venerable lineage of the Avadhuta. I am without peer and I am an anomaly. I am Australian born and bred and am of Swedish, English and blonde northern Italian parentage. The Viking and Norse tradition of kenning, poetry, poetic mead, bindrunes, berserking and runemal is in my blood. I am versed in liturgies of the Sanskritic, Tibetan and English language traditions. Old Icelandic, Ancient Greek and Italian like Sanskrit are within the family of Indo-European languages and this is salient as I will one day chart a Vedic pedigree for the Avadhuta as an appendice for a work which I will continue when I am suitably housed and which I have given the brief English title: The Bejewelled Ankusha. I only hold one of the five sacred objects of the Sikha Dharma initiated as an investiture and that is a kirpan with a bone-handled sacramental-blade sanctified and offered to installed and worshipful deities. The kirpan has a bone handle in honour of my charnel ground pedigree and the virgin blade was tested inadvertently and accidentally in front of one deity, importantly and saliently for this work, the lion-headed lord Narasinghadeva on his Chaturdasi in Melbourne, 2014. I secured this implement prior to five unmotivated and independent attacks of my person within a three day period. A boon for all concerned, need did not require this implement of compassion being brought into play. I have been given the epithet ‘chosen of Hari’, “Hari” is a polysemic term and a denotation of import for this narrative and the Sikha Dharma tradition is “lion”. The HolyName Hari is evoked a number of times in the SGGS. Unfortunately, I have no direct experience with a living tradition of the Sikha Dharma except for the Sikhi taxi-driver that knocked me off my push-bike but I am an Avadhuta in quality and as such I am worshipful and honoured by all traditions of the Dharma of which the Sikhs are comprised a valiant and virile limb. Within the Dharmic Traditions proper, this would never ordinarily be stated and wouldn’t need to be stated but given my unprecedented situation and an English audience to which the term and culture of ‘avadhuta’ is a relative unknown and an unknowable I feel it is appropriate to be clear and candid. Wearing a turban and failing to crop my hair and eyebrows and carrying a comb are a ritual ridiculousness to me and are of no value. Since the Sikhs appreciate anti-ritualism and the disavowal of empty rites I trust that my personal determination of adopting that which is salient to me and discarding which is not of value nor sound to be congruent with the fundamental tenets of the Sikha Dharma.
Thirty-one (31) verses which contain the Gurmukhi term ਅਉਧੂ or its derivatives with alternate case-endings were identified through an online interrogation of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as rendered on the Srigranth.org website.
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Nomenclature, orthography, etymology
Avadhoota (Sanskrit rendered in )
‘a▫oḏẖū’ (Gurmukhi: ਅਉਧੂ ; Hindustani: अउधू ) and ‘a▫uḏẖūṯ’ (Gurmukhi: ਅਉਧੂਤ ; Hindustani: अउधूता )
Gurmukhi is a nominal contraction of ‘guru’ (teacher, heavy) and ‘mukh’ (mouth, maw). I understand Gurmukhi both as a purpose-made script and a syncretic dialect embedded in its socio-cultural and socio-political and sacerdotal context. Gurmukhi is the language of the song of the SGGS in 31 raga. Gurmukhi and the iconographic Kirtimukha or ‘Face of Glory’ are indelibly conflated in the idiosyncratic curiosity of my heartmindcontinuum or mindstream. I don’t know Gurmukhi but with luck, technology and intuition the river of languages and culture is forded.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji
When I first started reading this deified sacred text I just couldn’t stop crying and I didn’t know why and still don’t. The tears were a commingling of both sublime sorrow and joy unlike other emotional ecstasies I have experienced. But after I had invested and installed the sanctified kirpan upon my person and read of the martyrdom of a number of Sikhs I felt the wellspring of the welling, was judiciously identified. This still awaits explication. That said, some Arabic, Moslem and/or Sufi know of Avadhuta and their ilk by the term MahaAkbhar in honour of the ecumenical and perspicacious Akbhar the Great. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is a collection of songs, singings, sayings and writings of a number of medieval Indian holy people of various ‘sahaja’ or ‘sahajiya’ traditions one of which is Kabir. I modelled myself on Kabir and Kabir in one of his doha held himself to be an Avadhuta.
SGGS is a collection of 1430 ‘ang’ or limbs (a respectful and honorific term for pages, sheets, or leaf it is also employed in yoga and evokes a part/whole relationship), containing 3,384 shabads or ‘poetic hymns’ (including swayas, sloks and vars, or ballads) in 31 raga of classical Indian music. Sikha Dharma tradition holds that there are 43 authors of SGGS: four (4) Sikhs, seven (7) Gurus, fifteen (15) Bhagats and seventeen (17) Bhatts. Etic and emic discourse needs to be explained and that both will be included with no sense of disrespect to the indigenous tradition nor to the traditions of science.
ਪੰਨਾ 522, ਸਤਰ 6
ਦਸ ਨਾਰੀ ਅਉਧੂਤ ਦੇਨਿ ਚਮੋੜੀਐ ॥
दस नारी अउधूत देनि चमोड़ीऐ ॥
Ḏas nārī a▫uḏẖūṯ ḏen cẖamoṛī▫ai.
The ten organs of sensation attach even detached renunciates to sensory pleasures.
‘a▫uḏẖūṯ’ is here rendered into English as “detached renunciate”, plurality omitted.
*identify ten organs of sensation, most probably common to the 5 sense-bases Pancendriya and the 5 Powers Pancabala of the Buddhadharma and their correlates with the Vaishnava Darshan and Yoga Darshana. Yet to be determined with authenticity for this verse and the Sikha Dharma tradition. This verse is wonderful given my particular sadhana and dharma as a celestial courtesan or sacred prostitute. I will state here with brevity and gravitas that the rites of fecundity are that around which religion and religiosity of the human are accreted.
5 [gyanendriya] or jnanendriya + 5 [karmendriya] by memory I have charted these to Samkhya.
The numerals which have been used in Siri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS), however, are not Arab but Gurmukhi ( Sifr, Ik, Dho, Tine’, Char, Punj, Chhe’, Sat, Aath, Nau , Das ) which are based on the Indian (Devanagari) numbers, although we must note that this is still a decimal system. These numerals have been used in numerous ways throughout SGGS.
Iqbal Singh Manhas (n.d.). Guru Granth Sahib and Numbers. Source: http://www.paldi.info/WebsiteFiles/Numbers.pdf (accessed: June 18, 2014)
A note on traditional versification and numbering. I intuit that ਪੰਨਾ denotes something like “page, sheet, lief [of a manuscript]” and within context I tender specifically ‘page [number]’ and ਸਤਰ denotes something like specific ‘verse [on page]’. Yet to be determined with veracity.
ਪੰਨਾ 747, ਸਤਰ 12
ਦਸ ਅਉਤਾਰ ਰਾਜੇ ਹੋਇ ਵਰਤੇ ਮਹਾਦੇਵ ਅਉਧੂਤਾ ॥
दस अउतार राजे होइ वरते महादेव अउधूता ॥
Ḏas a▫uṯār rāje ho▫e varṯe mahāḏev a▫uḏẖūṯā.
There were ten regal incarnations of Vishnu; and then there was Shiva, the renunciate.
I wish to draw attention to the linguistic similarity of ‘avatar’ here in transliterated romanisation of Gurmukhi with diacritics as a▫uṯār the conventions of which I have not yet isolated and identified with ‘avadhuta’ here in transliterated romanisation of Gurmukhi with diacritics as a▫uḏẖūṯā. An Avadhuta is an Avatar. One of the Avadhuta Upanishads defines Avadhuta as “immortal” and as “the greatest”. The deified Vaishnava text the Srimad Bhagavatam identifies Rishabhadeva, the Jaina progenitor, as an ‘avadhuta’. This is yet to be determined by Jaina literature, but the Bhagavatam conveys the privations and humiliations Rishabha experienced at the hands of humans which resonate with the scapegoat motif of such as the Christ of the Abrahamic Traditions. Rishabhadeva is the first Jain and Jaina Dharma is the first Nastika tradition that is the first Dharmic Tradition that calls into question and challenges the authority of the Vedas. I wish to state that the term Avadhuta as well as all of its permutations in other scripts and languages requires a work on its provenance, attestation, influence and pervasion. I haven’t even mentioned one of the more well known Avadhuta in English discourse, Dattatreya.
Now mahāḏev or MahaDeva or ‘Great God’ is used to denote many different deities but is often used to denote Shiva. Here the mahāḏev is an a▫uḏẖūṯā, a denotation of which is “dejected, neglected”. I feel this denotation has import for this verse in context as Shiva is often depicted or described as a disheveled antinomian yogi though held in reverence is also held in disdain.
Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashavatara (accessed: June 18, 2014) this is not the ten that is meant search the Jaina enumeration of 10 REGAL Avatars, where “regal” is a gloss of Raja. Both these lists may inform the Sikha enumeration. Rishabha is numbered as one of the ten in this list in the Jaina Raja Ten.. Noted in passing in a book within the SLV Barry room.
Vettam Mani, ISBN 0842608222 (1st Edition in English: Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi,1975) p.78
“AVADHUTESVARA. An incarnation of Siva. Once Indra and Brhaspati went to Kailasa to do homage to Siva who clad in air only hindered their way. Indra requested that person to get out of the way. He requested repeatedly several times but in vain. Indra who got angry took his weapon of Vajra. But Siva froze it. Moreover fire emanated from his eye on the forehead. At the request of Brhaspati Siva turned the fire from his eye towards Lavana Samudra (the sea of Salt). Jalandhara who was killed by Siva had his origin in this fire. (Siva Purana).”
Now I have heard and read innumerable tellings of this in my time where Siva is often referred to as Rudra, but here the lead or header entry of the Puranic Encyclopedia is to be noted in our principal context and the translation of our term in this verse. Interestingly, this is the first English edition with an implication that there have been editions in indigenous languages that have preceded it. Many denotations of Avadhuta are important here but I tender “repudiated” to be chastised AND “repudiating” to chastise or correct wrathfully. I didn’t preserve diacritics in the quotation.
Now this will require finding the verses within the Shiva Purana in an Indian indigenous language, preferably a critical edition if possible. I also noted in passing today in the SLV Barry that the Bhagavad Purana was translated into all the 30+ principal languages of India. Therefore, there will be 30 plus specific language renderings of “Avadhuta” to identify and codify.
ਪੰਨਾ 840, ਸਤਰ 7
ਦੁਆਦਸਿ ਮੁਦ੍ਰਾ ਮਨੁ ਅਉਧੂਤਾ ॥
दुआदसि मुद्रा मनु अउधूता ॥
Ḏu▫āḏas muḏrā man a▫uḏẖūṯā.
The Twelfth Day: One whose mind is not attached to the twelve signs,
ਪੰਨਾ 877, ਸਤਰ 15
ਸੋ ਅਉਧੂਤੁ ਐਸੀ ਮਤਿ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
सो अउधूतु ऐसी मति पावै ॥
So a▫uḏẖūṯ aisī maṯ pāvai.
He alone is a hermit, who attains such understanding.
ਪੰਨਾ 877, ਸਤਰ 18
ਸੁਣਿ ਮਾਛਿੰਦ੍ਰਾ ਅਉਧੂ ਨੀਸਾਣੀ ॥
सुणि माछिंद्रा अउधू नीसाणी ॥
Suṇ mācẖẖinḏarā a▫oḏẖū nīsāṇī.
Listen, O Machhindra: this is the insignia of the true hermit.
Sikhnet provides two different renderings one which may be a phonetic rendering yet to determine whether this is the case and the conventions of this system and a type of Gurmukhi romanization the conventions of which are also yet to be determined.
suix mwiCMdRw AauDU nIswxI ] (877-18, rwmklI, mÚ 1)
sun maachhindaraa a-oDhoo neesaanee.
Listen, O Machhindra: this is the insignia of the true hermit.
Source: http://www.sikhnet.com/oldsikhnet/sggs/translation/0877.html (accessed: June 17, 2014)
Machindranath is a name of Matsyendranath.
Refer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matsyendranath (accessed: June 18, 2014)
ਪੰਨਾ 903, ਸਤਰ 7
ਨਾ ਅਉਧੂਤੀ ਨਾ ਸੰਸਾਰੀ ॥੧॥
ना अउधूती ना संसारी ॥१॥
Nā a▫uḏẖūṯī nā sansārī. ||1||
You are not a renunciate, nor a man of the world. ||1||
Here is the beginning of a logical conundrum such as is evident in the discourse of the Chatuskhoti. Avadhuti and Samsari are contrasted and yet are also both negated as not being it. A person yet to be identified with precision has rendered a▫uḏẖūṯī in context as “renunciate”.
ਪੰਨਾ 904, ਸਤਰ 6
ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਾਗਿ ਰਹੇ ਅਉਧੂਤਾ ॥
गुरमुखि जागि रहे अउधूता ॥
Gurmukẖ jāg rahe a▫uḏẖūṯā.
As Gurmukh, I remain awake and aware, unattached.
ਪੰਨਾ 907, ਸਤਰ 17
ਸਿਵ ਨਗਰੀ ਮਹਿ ਆਸਣੁ ਅਉਧੂ ਅਲਖੁ ਅਗੰਮੁ ਅਪਾਰੀ ॥੮॥
सिव नगरी महि आसणु अउधू अलखु अगमु अपारी ॥८॥
Siv nagrī mėh āsaṇ a▫oḏẖū alakẖ agamm apārī. ||8||
The true hermit obtains a seat in the City of God, the invisible, inaccessible, infinite. ||8||
Purport: it is telling that the term for ‘seat’ that is employed is āsaṇa.
ਪੰਨਾ 908, ਸਤਰ 5
ਬੇਦੁ ਬਾਦੁ ਨ ਪਾਖੰਡੁ ਅਉਧੂ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਬਦਿ ਬੀਚਾਰੀ ॥੧੯॥
बेदु बादु न पाखंडु अउधू गुरमुखि सबदि बीचारी ॥१९॥
Beḏ bāḏ na pakẖand a▫oḏẖū gurmukẖ sabaḏ bīcẖārī. ||19||
This true hermit does not enter into religious debates or hypocrisy; the Gurmukh contemplates the Shabad. ||19||
I wish to affirm that the Dharma was always tested in debate and the logical traditions of the Dharma and of the prevailing and ascendant in the contests of the contested aspects of the Dharma are to be upheld.
ਪੰਨਾ 908, ਸਤਰ 5
ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜੋਗੁ ਕਮਾਵੈ ਅਉਧੂ ਜਤੁ ਸਤੁ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰੀ ॥੨੦॥
गुरमुखि जोगु कमावै अउधू जतु सतु सबदि वीचारी ॥२०॥
Gurmukẖ jog kamāvai a▫oḏẖū jaṯ saṯ sabaḏ vīcẖārī. ||20||
The Gurmukh practices Yoga – he is the true hermit; he practices abstinence and truth, and contemplates the Shabad. ||20||
ਪੰਨਾ 908, ਸਤਰ 6
ਸਬਦਿ ਮਰੈ ਮਨੁ ਮਾਰੇ ਅਉਧੂ ਜੋਗ ਜੁਗਤਿ ਵੀਚਾਰੀ ॥੨੧॥
सबदि मरै मनु मारे अउधू जोग जुगति वीचारी ॥२१॥
Sabaḏ marai man māre a▫oḏẖū jog jugaṯ vīcẖārī. ||21||
One who dies in the Shabad and conquers his mind is the true hermit; he understands the Way of Yoga. ||21||
ਪੰਨਾ 908, ਸਤਰ 7
ਸਬਦਿ ਸੂਰ ਜੁਗ ਚਾਰੇ ਅਉਧੂ ਬਾਣੀ ਭਗਤਿ ਵੀਚਾਰੀ ॥੨੩॥
सबदि सूर जुग चारे अउधू बाणी भगति वीचारी ॥२३॥
Sabaḏ sūr jug cẖāre a▫oḏẖū baṇī bẖagaṯ vīcẖārī. ||23||
Contemplating the Shabad, you shall be a hero throughout the four ages, O hermit; contemplate the Word of the Guru’s Bani in devotion. ||23||
ਪੰਨਾ 908, ਸਤਰ 8
ਏਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਮਾਇਆ ਮੋਹਿਆ ਅਉਧੂ ਨਿਕਸੈ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰੀ ॥੨੪॥
एहु मनु माइआ मोहिआ अउधू निकसै सबदि वीचारी ॥२४॥
Ėhu man mā▫i▫ā mohi▫ā a▫oḏẖū niksai sabaḏ vīcẖārī. ||24||
This mind is enticed by Maya, O hermit; contemplating the Shabad, you shall find release. ||24||
Purport: I identify mā▫i▫ā an orthographical representation of Maya.
ਪੰਨਾ 912, ਸਤਰ 17
ਕਿਨਹੀ ਮੋਨਿ ਅਉਧੂਤੁ ਸਦਾਇਆ ॥
किनही मोनि अउधूतु सदाइआ ॥
Kinhī mon a▫uḏẖūṯ saḏā▫i▫ā.
Some put themselves on silence, and call themselves hermits.
All this evocation of the Holy Name and the Holy Word requires explication. But I say here without reservation that although revealed literature in the Sanskritic tradition is ancient as is the deification of Vac, these are of Christian Biblical influence as well.
ਪੰਨਾ 938, ਸਤਰ 13
ਚਰਪਟੁ ਬੋਲੈ ਅਉਧੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਹੁ ਸਚਾ ਬੀਚਾਰੋ ॥
चरपटु बोलै अउधू नानक देहु सचा बीचारो ॥
Cẖarpat bolai a▫oḏẖū Nānak ḏeh sacẖā bīcẖāro.
O Nanak, think it over, and give us your true reply.” Charpat the Yogi asks.
Purport: who the fark is Charpat?
CHARPAT NATH, one of the yogis whom, according to the Miharban Janam Sakhi, Guru Nanak met on Mount Sumer, was a Gorakhpanthi recluse. Guru Nanak himself mentions his name twice in his compositions in the Guru Granth Sahib in his Si`dh Gosti and in another hymn in Raga Ramkali. In the Sidh Gosti (lit. discourse or dialogue with the Siddhas), Charpat is stated to have put this question to him: “How is one to go across the world described as an impassable ocean?” Answers the Guru: As unaffected liveth the lotus in water, And the duck, So with the mind fixed on the Word, One swimmeth across the Ocean of Existence.
He who liveth detached, Enshrining the One Lord in his mind, Who hopeth yet desireth not, Canst see as well as show The Unfathomable and the Unperceivable, Of such a one will Nanak be a slave. (GG, 938) In the Natha tradition, Charpat, is known to have been a disciple of Gorakhnath whose period falls somewhere in the llth to 12th century.
Guru Nanak whose period is much later must have therefore met some contemporary incumbent ofCharpat`s seat who also bore his name. Sixtyfour slokas attributed to Charpat are included in the Hindi work Natha Siddhon ki Baniyan some of them relating to the preparation of elixir to prevent disease and infirmity. Charpat is counted among Siddhas of the rasayana (alchemy) tradition.
1. Dwivedi, Hazari Prasad, Nath Sampradaya. Varanasi, 1966
2. Malik, Kalyani, Siddha Siddhanta Paddhti. Pune, 1954
3. Jodh Singh, The Religious Philosphy of Guru Nanak. Varanasi, 1983
Source: http://www.thesikhencyclopedia.com/biographies/hindu-bhagats-and-poets-and-punjabi-officials/charpat-nath (accessed: June 18, 2014)
ਪੰਨਾ 938, ਸਤਰ 19
ਕੰਦ ਮੂਲੁ ਅਹਾਰੋ ਖਾਈਐ ਅਉਧੂ ਬੋਲੈ ਗਿਆਨੇ ॥
कंद मूलु अहारो खाईऐ अउधू बोलै गिआने ॥
Kanḏ mūl ahāro kẖā▫ī▫ai a▫oḏẖū bolai gi▫āne.
For food, we take fruits and roots. This is the spiritual wisdom spoken by the renunciates.
Purport: I feel here a discussion of mūl or root is very important. As well as fruit… both are so important in Dharmic iconography. Ganachakra and sacramental festivities is to be discussed here. Commensurate laws, caste and consciousness transmission through food. ‘Spoken’ i feel is a rendering of bolai. gi▫āne or Jnana is rendered “spiritual wisdom”.
ਪੰਨਾ 944, ਸਤਰ 16
ਤ੍ਰੈ ਸਤ ਅੰਗੁਲ ਵਾਈ ਅਉਧੂ ਸੁੰਨ ਸਚੁ ਆਹਾਰੋ ॥
त्रै सत अंगुल वाई अउधू सुंन सचु आहारो ॥
Ŧarai saṯ angul vā▫ī a▫oḏẖū sunn sacẖ āhāro.
O reclusive hermit, the True, Absolute Lord is the support of the exhaled breath, which extends out ten finger lengths.
the ten finger lengths reminds me of the yogic drishti two handspands before the tip of the nose where the eyes calibrate…
ਪੰਨਾ 944, ਸਤਰ 19
ਗਿਆਨ ਕੀ ਮੁਦ੍ਰਾ ਕਵਨ ਅਉਧੂ ਸਿਧ ਕੀ ਕਵਨ ਕਮਾਈ ॥
गिआन की मुद्रा कवन अउधू सिध की कवन कमाई ॥
Gi▫ān kī muḏrā kavan a▫oḏẖū siḏẖ kī kavan kamā▫ī.
What is the way of the spiritual teacher, and the reclusive hermit? What is the occupation of the Siddha?
Purport: I feel Gi▫ān is somehow related to Jnana. I wonder if Jnana with Mudra is here rendered as “the Way”. Interesting.
the siddha had diverse occupations, some of which were prostitutes or courtesans or pimps for prostitutes. Refer: Mahasiddha.
ਪੰਨਾ 945, ਸਤਰ 1
ਬਿਨੁ ਸਬਦੈ ਰਸੁ ਨ ਆਵੈ ਅਉਧੂ ਹਉਮੈ ਪਿਆਸ ਨ ਜਾਈ ॥
बिनु सबदै रसु न आवै अउधू हउमै पिआस न जाई ॥
Bin sabḏai ras na āvai a▫oḏẖū ha▫umai pi▫ās na jā▫ī.
Without the Shabad, the essence does not come, O hermit, and the thirst of egotism does not depart.
I feel “essence” is a rendering of ras or Rasa which requires considerable and considered attention by me sometime. My Rasa is Shanta Rasa and specifically as a jewel or mirror where I evocatively mirror or respond to the rasa bhava of others. Prabhupada identifies this as a quality of Avadhuta but intimates that this is not common to all Avadhuta. Yet to be determined. This requires access to texts that to my knowledge are not yet in common currency. To Abhinavagupta I do bow.
ਪੰਨਾ 945, ਸਤਰ 8
ਕਹਾ ਬਸੈ ਸੁ ਸਬਦੁ ਅਉਧੂ ਤਾ ਕਉ ਚੂਕੈ ਮਨ ਕਾ ਭਵਨਾ ॥
कहा बसै सु सबदु अउधू ता कउ चूकै मन का भवना ॥
Kahā basai so sabaḏ a▫oḏẖū ṯā ka▫o cẖūkai man kā bẖavnā.
Where should the Shabad reside, so that the wanderings of the mind may cease?
ਪੰਨਾ 945, ਸਤਰ 17
ਹਿਰਦਾ ਦੇਹ ਨ ਹੋਤੀ ਅਉਧੂ ਤਉ ਮਨੁ ਸੁੰਨਿ ਰਹੈ ਬੈਰਾਗੀ ॥
हिरदा देह न होती अउधू तउ मनु सुंनि रहै बैरागी ॥
Hirḏā ḏeh na hoṯī a▫oḏẖū ṯa▫o man sunn rahai bairāgī.
When the heart and the body did not exist, O hermit, then the mind resided in the absolute, detached Lord.
Purport: Hirḏā I feel is rendered ‘heart’ and ḏeh I feel is rendered ‘body’. bairāgī is like vairagya or somesuch. man I feel is mind.
ਪੰਨਾ 946, ਸਤਰ 12
ਸਬਦੈ ਕਾ ਨਿਬੇੜਾ ਸੁਣਿ ਤੂ ਅਉਧੂ ਬਿਨੁ ਨਾਵੈ ਜੋਗੁ ਨ ਹੋਈ ॥
सबदै का निबेड़ा सुणि तू अउधू बिनु नावै जोगु न होई ॥
Sabḏai kā nibeṛā suṇ ṯū a▫oḏẖū bin nāvai jog na ho▫ī.
This is the essence of the Shabad – listen, you hermits and Yogis. Without the Name, there is no Yoga.
ਪੰਨਾ 946, ਸਤਰ 14
ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਤੇ ਨਾਮੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਅਉਧੂ ਜੋਗ ਜੁਗਤਿ ਤਾ ਹੋਈ ॥
सतिगुर ते नामु पाईऐ अउधू जोग जुगति ता होई ॥
Saṯgur ṯe nām pā▫ī▫ai a▫oḏẖū jog jugaṯ ṯā ho▫ī.
The Name is obtained only from the True Guru, O hermit, and then, the Way of Yoga is found.
Purport: requires saguna and nirguna discussion.
With the Gurmukhi numeral one, Guru Nanak proclaims right from the beginning, the strict monotheism of the Sikh religion. The structure of the Gurmukhi numeral one contains the Gurmukhi sifr (zero) at the top with a vertical notch coming out of it from the right side which is reminiscent of the old mark of one by the early man all those years ago. The Gurmukhi numeral one, can accordingly be taken as a duality of zero and one. It represents Waheguru in its Nirgun (Zero) state and Sargun (1, one) state:… (page 290, line 16).
Iqbal Singh Manhas (n.d.). Guru Granth Sahib and Numbers. Source: http://www.paldi.info/WebsiteFiles/Numbers.pdf (accessed: June 18, 2014)
ਪੰਨਾ 952, ਸਤਰ 15
ਸੋ ਅਉਧੂਤੀ ਜੋ ਧੂਪੈ ਆਪੁ ॥
सो अउधूती जो धूपै आपु ॥
So a▫uḏẖūṯī jo ḏẖūpai āp.
He alone is a detached hermit, who burns away his self-conceit.
Purport: ḏẖūp is like the noun/verb of incense, and I feel this is what is rendered as “burns” yet to be determined.
ਪੰਨਾ 952, ਸਤਰ 16
ਸੋ ਅਉਧੂਤੀ ਸਿਵ ਪੁਰਿ ਚੜੈ ॥
सो अउधूती सिव पुरि चड़ै ॥
So a▫uḏẖūṯī siv pur cẖaṛai.
Such a renunciate ascends to the City of God.
The text with its language and envisioning and congruence of deity with sovereignty is telling of the medieval Indian mind and indeed I remember it is employed in the Medieval spiritual texts and scriptures and testaments of other medieval spiritual traditions as well. This begs elucidation and specificity of locating and problematizing “City of God”.
ਪੰਨਾ 953, ਸਤਰ 6
ਨਾ ਸੰਸਾਰੀ ਨਾ ਅਉਧੂਤ ॥
ना संसारी ना अउधूत ॥
Nā sansārī nā a▫uḏẖūṯ.
They are neither worldly people, nor detached renunciates.
Purport: there are many repetitions in the SGGS and this is a testament to its origins as oral lore and oral tradition. Repetitions are also devices of emphasis and importance rather than just to be viewed with the Western tendency to view such as unnecessary redundances.
ਪੰਨਾ 969, ਸਤਰ 7
ਅਉਧੂ ਮੇਰਾ ਮਨੁ ਮਤਵਾਰਾ ॥
अउधू मेरा मनु मतवारा ॥
A▫oḏẖū merā man maṯvārā.
O hermit Yogi, my mind is intoxicated.
Purport: I feel this intoxication shares in the Sahaja traditions such as the Sufi tradition of the god-intoxicated which is common to certain Bhakti holy people. Drugs and intoxicating agents may be used appropriately and inappropriately. Sacerdotal sacramental. Intoxicants are potential purveyors of siddhi.
ਪੰਨਾ 1004, ਸਤਰ 9
ਹੋਇ ਅਉਧੂਤ ਬੈਠੇ ਲਾਇ ਤਾਰੀ ॥
होइ अउधूत बैठे लाइ तारी ॥
Ho▫e a▫uḏẖūṯ baiṯẖe lā▫e ṯārī.
Some become hermits, and sit in meditative trances.
Purport: thankfully I can bring in a discussion of trance…
ਪੰਨਾ 1079, ਸਤਰ 4
ਸਿਮਰਹਿ ਬਨ ਪਰਬਤ ਅਉਧੂਤਾ ॥
सिमरहि बन परबत अउधूता ॥
Simrahi ban parbaṯ a▫uḏẖūṯā.
The forests, mountains and hermits meditate in remembrance.
Purport: I wish to add an intertextuality with Dogen and Zen and the iconography and import of forests and mountains for the dons of Dharma.
ਪੰਨਾ 1238, ਸਤਰ 5
ਜੇਤੇ ਜੀਅ ਫਿਰਹਿ ਅਉਧੂਤੀ ਆਪੇ ਭਿਖਿਆ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
जेते जीअ फिरहि अउधूती आपे भिखिआ पावै ॥
Jeṯe jī▫a firėh a▫uḏẖūṯī āpe bẖikẖi▫ā pāvai.
And all the human beings who wander around as beggars, He Himself gives in charity to them.
Purport: I feel bẖikẖi▫ā may be that which is rendered as begger. jī▫a is to be understood as a rendering of Jiva. Yet to be determined.
ਪੰਨਾ 1328, ਸਤਰ 10
ਅਉਧੂ ਸਹਜੇ ਤਤੁ ਬੀਚਾਰਿ ॥
अउधू सहजे ततु बीचारि ॥
A▫oḏẖū sėhje ṯaṯ bīcẖār.
O detached Yogi, contemplate the essence of reality,
Purport: here is a wonderful shloka tying Avadhuta to Sahaja.